Monday, 21 October 2013

Jats reiterate their stand on old conventions at Khap meeting (Chahal and Nandal Khaps)


-DISCUSS ISSUES OF CURRENT CONCERNS

I had prior information and formal invitations for attending on 20.10.2013 conventions of the two Khap Panchayats -a body comprising of Headmen of villages from the same Gotra or clan. One was from the Chahal and the other one from the Nandal -both Jats. The first one is represented by 185 villages and later, 52. These villages are not necessarily inhabited only by the Chahal and the Nadal Jats but may have hetero-communal composition of several communities. However, these two clans have dominance or principal share in the village estates. The Chahal Jats had their convention organized first time at village Nimri, 34 kilometers away from Rohtak (I live here), which is said to be the nuclear village of all Chahals and the second clan held the convention at newly erected magnificent mansion called 'Nandal Bhawan', which is situated only half a kilometer away from my residence across the twin canals -Bhalot sub-branch and Jawahar Lal Nehru Canal.



I opted to attend the convention of the Chahals at Nimri because it was the first ever occasion they organized it at the parent village. This village is said to have been settled by one Neema (नीमा) sometime in the early fifteenth century or 30 generations ago from now. But some elderly persons maintain that it was settled in the 1210 AD. However, this small village is located towards the south of Kharak Kalan village, 30 kilometers from Rohtak on the Rohtak-Bhiwani state highway. Its other major neighboring village is Baund. Kharak Kalan and Baund both have roots in antiquity and are Panwar Rajpoot estates, which have several heritage value properties such as havelis, masonry tanks and temples, quite attractive from architectural and tourist’s point of view. Regrettably, most of these properties face neglect by owners or are in ruins that need immediate protection and conservation.

The Headmen of the Chahal Khap had several items for the day on the agenda such as honoring the men and women of the Khap villages that have shown excellence in their pursuits or public service and, secondly, framing opinions and announcing decisions on certain socially sizzling issues such as 'honour killing', female foeticide, ways and means of empowering the youth, naming of the institutions etc. Kavita Chahal, the young and powerful women in boxing who was honored with Arjuna Award by Govt. of India was felicitated by the Khap Headmen with a memorabilia made of pure silver and cash awards provided. Dr. Harswaroop Singh Chahal, son of Shri Harnand Rai ji, a renowned educationist and teacher, was present in the convention to grace the proceedings. Nowadays, he is the Vice-chancellor Maharishi Dayanand University.

The Headmen of Chahal Khap were unanimous in making following announcements:

(i) Condemning the honor killing
(ii) No support to dowry and Kaaj or feast in memory of the deceased
(iii) Proper dress code for women
(iv) No support to foeticide
(v) Support to youngsters who excel in studies and sports etc.

One noticeable feature at the convention of the Chahal Khap held at Nimri was attendance of at least 150 women. About the convention held at Nandal Bhawan I have no information about participation of women as I did not attend but as the newspaper reports suggest it were similar as above.

Saturday, 18 May 2013

Khaap Panchayats and media response


[kki iapk;rsa vkSj mudh dkjZokbZ ds izfr
Hkkjrh; ehfM;k dk #[k

izkjaHk esa gh ;g Li’V djuk mfpr jgsxk fd [kki iapk;rksa vkSj mudh dkjZokbZ ds izfr T;knkrj ehfM;kdehZ vKkuh gSa vkSj os gesa vdlj fojks/kh iky+s esa cSBs utj vkrs gSaA vk”p;Ztud ckr ;g Hkh gS gfj;k.kk ds vf/kdrj cqf)thoh] tks fd okeiaFkh fopkjk/kkjk ds leFkZd gSa vkSj ftUgsa gfj;k.kk ds yksxksa ds lkaLd`frd bfrgkl ds ckjs esa iwjh tkudkjh ugha gS] bUgha yksxksa dk lkFk nsrs gq, utj vkrs gSaA ehfM;k esa bUgha yksxksa }kjk tkV [kki iapk;rksa ds fo#) ckSf)d foospuk dh pk”kuh esa Mwcs gq, ys[k izdkf”kr gksrs gSa ftuls vketu esa ;g /kkj.kk curh gS fd [kki iapk;rsa ekuokf/kdkj fojks/kh gSa] os ccZj dkjZokbZ dh leFkZd gSa vkSj mUgsa U;k; djuk ugha vkrkA blds vykok tc Hkh dksbZ ,slh ?kVuk gksrh gS ftlesa [kki iapk;rksa dh Hkwfedk curh gS rks ehfM;k esa ,slh fjiksVksaZ dh Hkjekj gks tkrh gS ftlls mudh Nfo vkSj Hkh nkxnkj cuk nh tkrh gS vkSj iz”kklu] U;k;ikfydk vkSj fo/kkf;dk ds fy;s ,slh nckoiw.kZ ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk l`tu fd;k tkrk gS ftlls os dksbZ u;k dkuwu cukdj [kki iapk;rksa dks xSj&dkuwuh ?kksf’kr dj nsaA bl ekeys esa la;eh] bfrgkl&laLd`fr ds tkudkj vkSj tkV dkSe ds cqf)thoh rVLFk cus jgrs gSa vkSj mudh dksbZ Hkwfedk Hkh ehfM;k esa utj ugha vkrhA “kk;n bldk ,d dkj.k ;g Hkh gS os ,d rks bruk fuf’Ø; gSa fd xyr rjhds ls is”k dh tkus okyh ckrksa ds fo#) dye ugha mBkrsA nwljk] muds ikl dksbZ ,slk eap ugha gS ftls ehfM;k fu’i{k vkSj viuk nksLr ekusA ;s yksx ehfM;k ds fy;s izks&,fDVo ugha gSa vFkkZr dqN gksus ls igys gh mlds ckjs fopkj djds l{ke gksdj dkjZokbZ dj ldsa ,slk dksbZ ix ugha mBkrsA gfj;k.kk dk viuk u rks dksbZ Vh-oh- pSuy gS vkSj u gh dksbZ izfrf’Br nSfud v[kckjA blfy;s gfj;k.kk ls lacaf/kr tks Hkh fjiksVsaZ Vsyhfotu vkSj v[kckjksa ds vykok if=dkvksa esa izlkfjr@izdkf”kr gksrh gSa mu lcds eq[; fBdkus ;k gSMDokVZj ;k rks paMhx<+ vkSj fnYyh esa gSa vFkok mÙkjizns”k vkSj e/;izns”k esa tSlk fd nSfud tkxj.k vkSj nSfud HkkLdj ds ekeys esaA ,d ckr vkSj Hkh gS fd fgUnh Hkk’kk ds tulapkj ek/;eksa tSls fd v[kckj vkSj if=dk,a ,slh ugha ekuh tkrha ftuesa izdkf”kr fjiksVksaZ ij uhfrK] ljdkjh veyk] U;k;ikfydk,a vkSj fo/kkf;dk,a dksbZ xaHkhj roTtksa ysaA blfy;s tks Hkh vljnkj fjiksVsaZ Nirh ;k izlkfjr gksrh gSa os ;k rks vaxzsth Hkk’kk ds Vsyhfot+u pSuYl ij izlkfjr gksrh gSa vFkok vaxzsth Hkk’kk ds izfrf’Br v[kckjksa tSls fd fn fVªC;wu] fn VkbEl vkWQ bafM;k] fn fgUnqLrku VkbEl vkSj bafM;u ,DLizsl esaA laln dk l= py jgk gks rks bu v[kckjksa dh izfr;kas dks gekjs ekuuh; lkaln vanj ys tkrs gSa vkSj ygjk&ygjk dj vU; lnL;ksa dk /;ku buesa Nih gqbZ mu lqf[Zk;ksa dh vksj vkdf’kZr djrs gSa ftuesa [kki iapk;rksa ds ckjs fVIif.k;ka ;k fjiksVsaZ izdkf”kr gqbZ gSaA os tksj nsdj ;g dgrs gSa fd gfj;k.kk esa [kki iapk;rsa funZ;h vkSj vR;kpkjh gks xbZ gSa blfy;s bu ij dkuwuh vadq”k yxk;k tkuk t:jh gSA
;g le>uk t:jh gS fd ;fn ehfM;k esa [kki iapk;rksa ds vfLrRo] mudh ,sfrgkfld Hkwfedk vkSj dkjZokbZ ,oa fofHkUu eqíksa ij le;&le; ij fy;s fu.kZ;ksa ds ckjs esa dksbZ vuko”;d vkSj vkifÙktud fVIi.kh dh tkrh gS vFkok foxr esa dh tkrh jgh gSa rks izfrdkjLo:i u dsoy mudk ckSf)d vkSj dkuwu lEer tokc fn;k tkuk t:jh gS cfYd ;g loky mBk;k tkuk Hkh t:jh gS fd ehfM;k esa ys[kd] fVIi.khdkj] fjiksVZj vkSj laiknd bu fo’k;ksa ds ckjs esa fdruh tkudkjh j[krs gSaA vc rd bl ckjs esa ftrus Hkh ys[k] fjiksVsZa vkSj laikndh; fVIif.k;ka izdkf”kr gqbZ gSa D;k os i=dkfjrk O;olk; ds fy;s ykxw vfyf[kr uSfrd vkpj.k lafgrk ds nk;js esa jgh gSa vFkok ughaA D;k mUgksaus [kki iapk;rksa ds ckjs esa mPp Lrjh; tkudkjh j[kus okys rVLFk izcq) oxZ ,oa [kki ds pkS/kfj;ksa dk i{k Hkh yksxksa ds lkeus j[kk vFkok dsoy ,d&i{kh; ckr djrs gq, [kkiksa ds fo#) ,d fuanuh; vfHk;ku ek= gh pyk;kA bl ekeys esa izsl dh Hkwfedk dks lansgkLin rks ugha dgk tk ldrk ysfdu fofHkUu fjiksVksaZ] ys[kksa vkSj laikndh; ys[kksa ds v/;;u ,oa fo”ys’k.k ls ;g t:j Li’V gks x;k gS fd mUgksaus tks Hkh izdkf”kr fd;k gS mlesa rVLFk Hkko dk ?kksj vHkko fn[kkA mudh bl ckSf)d deh ij vkt rd vaxqyh blfy;s ugha mBk;h xbZ fd ¼1½ [kki ds vf/kdrj pkS/kjh lhns&lk/ks gSa] vkSj ¼2½ tkV xks= [kkiksa ls lac) tkfr ds cqf)thfo;ksa us rRdky gh izcq) :i ls l”kDr tokc ugha fn;kA blfy;s ehfM;k ;g eku dj py jgk gS fd os tks dqN is”k djrs gSa izfrdkj ds vHkko esa og ekU; gks x;k gS] tcfd okLro esa ,slk dqN ugha gSA tkVksa esa vusd rVLFk cqf)thoh tks fd dkuwu] foKku] lekt “kkL=] /keZ”kkL=] U;k;”kkL=] jktuhfr vkSj dwVuhfr rFkk O;oLFkk ds ekeys esa fo}ku dgs tkrs gSa bl ekeys esa <hys jgs gSa blfy;s “kk;n ehfM;kxq: tks th esa vk;s og fy[krs tk jgs gSaA ns[kk x;k gS bl ekeys esa os Hkh la;e ls dke ugha ys jgs gSa tcfd xks= [kki vFkok loZ[kki ds izfrfuf/k;ksa us vikj la;e dk ifjp; fn;k gSA vHkh rd vusd ekeyksa esa [kkiksa dh Hkwfedk ij vaxqyh blfy;s mBrh jgh gS fd mudh vkM+ esa vijk/kh vdlj laj{k.k ysrs ns[ks x;s gSa tcfd T;knkrj ,sls vijk/k tks O;Ld O;fDr;ksa ds oSokfgd laca/kksa vFkok lsDl laca/kksa dh fcukg ij mitrs gSa [kkiksa dh eatwjh ls dHkh ?kfVr ugha gq,A ;fn gj O;fDrxr ekeys esa ?kVukvksa dh vko`fÙk vkSj le;c)rk dks ntZ fd;k tk;s rks irk yxrk gS fd dksbZ ?kVuk ;k nq?kZVuk rks igys gks pqdh ysfdu [kki ds ikl og ekeyk ckn esa vk;kA [kki ds pkS/kfj;ksa vFkok eqf[k;k yksxksa vFkok iapksa ij ;g vk{ksi yxkuk fd os vU;k; ds i{k/kj gSa mfpr ugha gksxkA loky ;g mBrk gS fd muds fu.kZ; dks mfpr ,oa ekU; cukus ds fy;s ifjikfV;ka T;knk lqn`< lanHkZ gSa vFkok ns”k dk dkuwu \ ;fn ge dkuwu dk “kklu vFkkZr :y vkQ ykW dh ckr djsa rks ik;saxs fd dsoy pan ekeyksa esa gh [kkiksa ds eqf[k;kvksa ds fu.kZ; ysus fd izfØ;k esa u dsoy O;fDr ds izkd`frd vf/kdkjksa cfYd :y vkQ ykW dk Hkh mYya?ku gqvk gSA [kkiksa ds eqf[k;k yksxksa dh xyrh flQZ bruh gksrh gS fd mUgksaus vijkf/k;ksa ds lkFk ujeh dk O;ogkj fd;kA O;fDr us ;fn okLro esa gh t?kU; vijk/k fd;k gS rks [kki }kjk mldk cpko djus dh vis{kk mls ns”k dh dkuwuh izfØ;k ds nk;js esa ykdj iqfyl vFkok U;k;ky; ds lqiqnZ dj nsuk pkfg;s` rkfd U;k; gks ldsA ysfdu ehfM;k dh ckr djsa rks ,sls eqdnesa os [kqn gh pykus yxs gSa vkSj fu.kZ; Hkh nsus yxs gSa fd ^xks=&[kki vFkok loZ[kki xSj&dkuwuh laxBu gS] eqf[k;k Lo;a&Hkw gSa vkSj os ew[kZ rFkk xaokj gSaA [kkiksa ij izfrca/k yxk;k tkuk pkfg;s vkfn&vkfnA* fiNys fnuksa ehfM;k esa izdkf”kr dqN lqf[kZ;ksa vkSj etewu ls fy;s x;s m)j.kksa ij utj Mkysa rks mDr ckr lgh lkfcr gksrh gSA mnkgj.k nsf[k;s%&
1-     fnukad 24 tqykbZ 2009 dks ^fn fVªC;wu* eas [kcj dk “kh’kZd Fkk &’Haryana Khap panchayat at it again (23 year old youth lynched for marrying same gotra girl in Narwana’  vxys fnu blh v[kckj esa u dsoy fQj ,d [kcj Nih &^He died for her, but she takes a U-turn’ cfYd laikndh; Hkh ftldkkh’kZd gS &Who Rules Haryana? The law or the khaps?

ys[k dk igyk okD; gh ;g crkrk gS fd gfj;k.kk eas dkuwu vkSj O;oLFkk ds utfj;s ls vjktdrk dh vksj ,d dne vkSj vkxs ljd x;k gS D;ksafd ,d ;qod us vius gh xks= dh ,d O;Ld yM+dh ls fookg dj fy;kA ftl vk/kkj ij v[kckj us ;g fVIi.kh dh og jsr dk igkM+ gS D;ksafd yM+ds vkSj yM+dh dk xks= vyx&vyx FkkA ,d dk xks= eksj Fkk rks nwljs dk HkuokykA gka] yM+dh okyksa dh vksj ls yM+ds dks ?ksj dj ekjuk ljklj t?kU; vijk/k gS ftlds fy;s yM+dh okyksa dks vo”; gh vijk/kh ?kksf’kr djds dkuwu ds rgr ekU; ltk nh tkuh pkfg;sA ysfdu ;g le> ugha vkrk fd blds fy;s v[kckj ds laikndh; ys[kd us] tks fu”p; gh v[kckj dk eqykfte gksxk] ;g dSls le> fy;k fd blds fy;s [kki nks’kh gS tcfd ?kVuk ds oDr [kki rks ogka Fkh gh ugha vkSj u gh [kki dk dksbZ pkS/kjh ;k eqf[k;kA ;g rks dsoy fla?kokyk xkao esa yM+dh ds ifjokj vkSj lacaf/k;ksa dh gh dkjxqtkjh Fkh tks fd vkijkf/kd FkhA ysfdu v[kckj us [kki dks gh dV?kjs esa [kM+k dj fn;kA v[kckj us tks ekSfyd xyrh dh gS mlds nks’k dh ltk Hkh D;k mls [kki gh nsxhA D;k izfrdkj ds :i esa [kki vius bykds esa ^fn fVªC;wu* lewg ds v[kckjksa dh fcØh vFkok forj.k can djok nsxh \ ysfdu mUgksaus ,slk ugha fd;kA nwljh vksj viuh ekSfyd xyrh dks v[kckj us Hkh fNik;k tks fd uSfrd :i ls vukpj.k gSA
2-     fnYyh ls Nius okys izfrf’Br v[kckj ^fn fgUnqLrku VkbEl* ds fnukad 24 tqykbZ 2009 ds vad esa ,d dkWye dh [kcj Nih ftldk “kh’kZd Fkk &^;wFk fdYM Qkj vkWuj bu gfj;k.kk* tks fd fla?kokyk xkao esa ?kfVr mijksDr ?kVuk ls gh lacaf/kr gSA ;g ckr rks lgh gS fd vku cpkus dh [kkfrj yM+ds dks ?ksj dj ekjk x;kA v[kckj ds fjiksVZj }kjk than ls Hksth xbZ bl [kcj esa ;g fy[kuk Hkh Bhd gks ldrk fd ^19 ekpZ dks eksj [kki us cSBd djds yM+ds ds fy;s l[r ltk dk Qjeku tkjh fd;k*A ysfdu blls ;g lkfcr ugha gksrk fd eksj xks= dh [kki us ;g Qjeku tkjh fd;k fd yM+ds dks ?ksj dj tku ls ekj fn;k tk;sA D;k fn fgUnqLrku VkbEl dk fjiksVZj fo”kky tks”kh vkSj v[kckj ds laiknd vkSj izdk”kd ;g ckr crk ldrs gSa fd muds }kjk fyf[kr ^fLVªDV ,D”ku* dk vFkZ Hkuokyk [kki esa yM+dh ds ifjokj us ;g le> fy;k gks fd yM+ds dks tku ls ekjuk gSA blfy;s ,d ifjokj ds lnL;ksa }kjk fd;s x;s t?kU; vijk/k ds ekeys dks [kki ds flj Fkksiuk mfpr ugha tku iM+rkA nwljh vksj ekjs x;s yM+ds ds xkao esa eksj [kki us cnys dh dkjZokbZ djus dh tks /kedh nh mldk vFkZ Hkh D;k eksj xks= ds lHkh yksx ;gh le>saxs fd tku ds cnys esa tku gh ysuh gS pkgs og vijk/kh dh gks ;k csdlwjokj dhA blfy;s bl ekeys esa iqfyl dk oDrh izca/k gh dke vk;kA ysfdu Hkfo’; esa bu nksuksa [kkiksa ds chp tks ruko gS og D;k :i ysxk vkSj mldh fuxjkuh dkSu j[ksxk] dksbZ ugha tkurkA vkSj] D;k iqfyl gj fnu vkSj vkBksa igj fdlh nq?kZVuk dks Vkyus ds fy;s pkSdl gh cSBh jgsxhA bl ekeys esa ehfM;k us vius tkSgj fn[kk fn;s ysfdu D;k [kki ds izcq) O;fDr;ksa us dksbZ ehfM;k&,D”ku fy;k rkfd fLFkfr dh Bhd&C;kuh gks lds \ dqN blh rtZ ij fnYyh ls Nius okys Hkkjr ds izfrf’Br v[kckj ^fn VkbEl vkWQ bafM;k* esa Hkh 24 tqykbZ dks tks [kcj Nih Fkh mldk “kh’kZd Fkk &^eSu fyUPM QkWj eSjhax vkmVlkbM [kki*A
3-     vc tjk vU; v[kckjksa ds “kh’kZdksa vkSj ys[kksa ij Hkh utj Mkysa%
¼v½ uhyks[ksM+h esa gfj;k.kk baLVhV~;wV vkWQ :jy MsoysieWUV esa  
dalYVsaV ds in ij fu;qDr j.kchj flag dk ^Combating khap panchayats in Haryana* “kh’kZd ls ^fn fVªC;wu* ds 26 tqykbZ ds vad esa izdkf”kr ys[k ftlesa mUgksaus [kki iapk;rksa dh dk;Ziz.kkyh vkSj fu.kZ; izfØ;k dks izHkkfor djus okys dkj.kksa ij izdk”k Mkyus vkSj muds fujkdj.k ds dkjxj mik; lq>kus dh ctk; [kki iapk;rksa dks gh nks’kh djkj nsdj mUgsa dV?kjs esa [kM+k dj fn;kA mUgksaus fookg laca/kksa ds ekeys esa mBus okys fooknksa ds vusd vlacaf/kr dkj.k fxuk fn;s tks fd mudh utj esa :jy MsoysiesaV ds fy;s t:jh gksus pkfg;sA xks;k fd muds fxuk;s dkj.kksa dks nwj dj fn;s tkus ls leL;k dk lek/kku gks tk;sxkA ehfM;k esa tkus ls igys ,sls izcq) yksxksa dks ckjhdh ls “kks/k dk;Z djds lgh mik; lq>kus pkfg;saA
¼vk½ >Ttj ls ^fn fVªC;wu* ds laoknnkrk johUnz lSuh dh 29 tqykbZ
2009 dh U;wt+ fjiksVZ ftldk “kh’kZd Fkk ^Khap gives Gehlout family 48 hours*A blds ckn fn VkbEl vkWQ bafM;k esa fnukad 31 tqykbZ dks Nis laikndh; ys[k dk “kh’kZd &^End Honour Killings* vkf[kj fdl “kSyh ds ys[k gSa vkSj dSls euksHkko laizsf’kr djrs gSa \ fn VkbEl vkWQ bafM;k ds laikndh; esa fla?kokyk xkao esa fookg laca/k dks ysdj gqbZ uo;qod dh gR;k ds izfr laln esa /;kukd’kZ.k vkSj [kki iapk;rksa dks t?kU; vijk/k ds leFkZd ds :i esa ns[kk tkuk u dsoy leLr tkV tkfr ds fy;s vekU; ,oa viekutud gS cfYd ,d ek;us esa mPprj laLFkkvksa dh foo”krk dks Hkh fn[kkrk gSA tc ns”k esa vU;= gksus okys vijk/kksa dh tkap ds fy;s ikfyZ;kesaVjh desVh vkSj tkap deh”ku fcBk fn;s tkrs gSa rks bl ekeys esa lalnh; tkap desVh vFkok deh”ku fcBk dj ekeys dks lqy>kus dh igy laln gh D;ksa ugha djrh \ eq>s ugha ekywe dh vkt rd [kki iapk;rksa esa fdlh Hkh lkaln us [kki vFkok loZ[kki dh gksus okyh cSBd esa fgLlk ysus dh tqjZr rd dh gksA rc fnYyh esa cSB dj fnYyh ls Nius okys v[kckjksa dks cxy esa nckdj laln esa igaqpus okys gekjs izfrfuf/k;ksa dh fpark vkSj bUgha pan v[kckjksa esa Nih [kcjksa dh rg rd u igqap dj tks Nik gS mlh ds vk/kkj ij jk; cukus dh izo`fÙk dgka rd mfpr gSA og Hkh lkalnksa esa tks fd ns”k dh lokZsPp fo/kkf;dk ds lnL; gksrs gSa! blh ckr dks ehfM;k esa Nih [kcjksa ds vk/kkj ij vkxs ys tkus okyk us”kuy áweu jkbV~l deh”ku Hkh ;g /;ku esa ugha j[krk gS fd ekSds ij tkdj rQrh”k djuk ekeys dks fuiVkus dh igyh izkd`frd vkSj dkuwuh t:jr gksrh gSA ysfdu izfrf’Br v[kckj ^fn fgUnw* esa 1 vxLr 2009 ds vad esa [kcj Nirh gS fd ^NHRC notice to Haryana over caste panchayats*A vc bl ekeys esa gfj;k.kk ljdkj dh Hkwfedk dgka rd vkSj fdruh gks ldrh gS ;g lc igys ls gh tkurs gSaA <jk.kk xkao esa iqfyl cy Hkst dj gfj;k.kk ljdkj us ns[k gh fy;k Fkk fd ogka fdruk vkSj dSlk fu;a=.k fd;k tkuk laHko gSA ysfdu gfj;k.kk ds vykok tkV vapy vkSj fnYyh esa cSBs fopkjd vkSj fpard rks ;g lksp dj rlYyh dj cSBs gSa fd us”kuy áweu jkbV~l deh”ku }kjk #fp ysus ls [kki iapk;rksa ij t:j gh l[r dkjZokbZ djuh laHko gksxhA os ;k rks eqxkyrs esa gSa vFkok ehfM;k fjiksVksaZ us mUgsa T;knk gh vkosf”kr dj fn;k gSA t:jr gS ehfM;k fjiksVksaZ ij dkjZokbZ u djds bl elys ds lkekftd&vkfFkZd vkSj lajpukRed igyqvksa dks ysdj nh?kZdkyhu dkjZokbZ djukA
vk”p;Ztud ckr rks ;g gS fd okeiaFkh vkSj cgqtu lekt ikfVZ;ka Hkh [kki iapk;rksa dks voS/k ?kksf’kr djokus vkSj mu ij l[r dkuwuh dkjZokbZ djokus dh i{k/kj gSaA tkfgj gS cgqtu lekt ikVhZ dk eq[; vk/kkj xks= [kki iapk;r ugha D;ksafd ijaijk ls lekt ds pkSFks o.kZ esa vkus okyh bl ikVhZ ds T;knkrj drkZ/krkZvksa dk xks= [kki iapk;rksa ls dksbZ [kkl okLrk ugha iM+rk ysfdu fu”p; gh loZ[kki iapk;r vkSj ^iwxk* vFkkZr loZns”kh; egkiapk;r esa rks os Hkh “kkfey gksrs gh gSaA blfy;s xks= [kki vkSj loZ[kki iapk;rksa ij fjiksfVaZx vkSj ys[ku ds ekeys esa ehfM;k dh Hkwfedk dks lq/kkjus ds fy;s tkVksa esa cqf)thfo;ksa dks gh igy djuh gksxh vU;Fkk bu [kkiksa ij yxs cnuqek /kCcksa dks fdlh rjg Hkh /kksuk ukeqefdu gksxkA

गोत्र-खाप में विवाह का वैज्ञानिक आधार एवं जात समाज की चिन्तायें


Xkks=&[kki esa fookg dk oSKkfud vk/kkj ,oa

TkkV lekt dh fpark,a vkSj leL;k,a


      fiNys chl lky esa gfj;k.kk vkSj if”peh mÙkjizns”k esa cls tkV tkfr dqN xkaoksa esa fookg laca/kksa dh lkekftd ekU;rk vkSj dkuwuh oS/krk dks ysdj vusd izdkj ds fookn ,oa fgald ?kVuk,a gqbZ gSa ftlus lHkh dks fpark esa Mky fn;k gSA ,slh ?kVukvksa dh mRifÙk ds dkj.k Hkh gSa] muds fujkdj.k ds mik; Hkh fd;s tkrs gSa ysfdu QSlyksa ds rkSj ij tks lkeus vkrk gS mlds ifj.kkeLo:i%&

1-            izHkkfor ifjokj xSj&dkuwuh ix mBkrs gSa vkSj rkRdkfyd tks”k esa fgalk dk jkLrk viukrs gSa] ftlls u dsoy O;fDr ds izkd`frd vf/kdkjksa tSls fd thus dk vf/kdkj cfYd ekuoh; vf/kdkjksa dk Hkh mYya?ku gksrk gSA

2-           QSlys ysus ds fy;s tkV tkfr ds izfrfuf/k;ksa vFkok pkS/kfj;ksa dks izkphu dky ds “kkL=] ns”k ds dkuwu] lafo/kku vkSj oSKkfud igyqvksa dh tkudkjh ugha gksrh ftlls os fooknkLin eqís dh Bhd ls tkap djus esa v{ke gSa vkSj cgq/kk xyr QSlys ysrs gSaA ysfdu ;g ekuuk dh os ew[kZ vFkok vfoosdh gSa] ljklj xyr gksxkA tkudkjh ds vHkko esa os fLFkfr;ksa dk oSKkfud fo”ys’k.k ugha dj ikrs] blfy;s muds T;knkrj QSlyksa ij loky mBk;s tkrs gSa vkSj mu ij vey djus dk rh[kk fojks/k gksrk gSA

3-            O;fDr vFkok ifjokj }kjk fdlh Hkh dkj.k ls dh xbZ xSj&dkuwuh vkSj xyr dkjZokbZ ds ifj.kkeLo:i [kki tSlh izkphu ,oa ifo= laLFkk ds ckjs esa xSj&tkV yksx ^vlH;* ,oa ^nqjkxzgh* gksus tSlh fVIif.k;ka djrs gSaA muds QSlyksa dks vfoosdiw.kZ] ^rkfyckuh Qrok* dgk tkrk gSA tu lapkj ek/;eksa ds tfj;s [kki tSlh izkphu ,oa ifo= laLFkk dks cnuke fd;k x;k gSA buds vykok ns”k dh loksZPp laLFkkvksa esa [kki ds izfr viekutud joS;k fn[kkdj vHknz fVIif.k;ka dh tkrh gSa vkSj dgk tkrk gS fd bUgsa xSj&dkuwuh ?kksf’kr fd;k tk;sA jktusrk rks [kki tSlh laLFkk dh rqyuk vktdy dqdqjeqÙkksa dh rjg mx vkbZ ,u-th-vkst+ vFkok xSj ljdkjh laLFkkvksa ls djus yxs gSa tksfd muds vYiKku dk gh |ksrd gSA ^[kki* laLFkk u rks ,u-th-vks tSlh gS vkSj u gh Lo;alsoh cfYd ,d ,sfrgkfld vkSj vR;ar etcwr] /keZijk;.k vkSj U;k;dkjh LFkk;h laLFkk gS ftldh dkjZokbZ dk lapkyu djus ds fy;s eqf[k;k yksxksa dh ,d vLFkk;h iapk;r cuk nh tkrh gSA ckn esa ;g iapk;r rc rd LFkfxr jgrh gS tc rd fd blds le{k ppkZ ds fy;s dksbZ lk>s fgr dk vFkok fooknkLin eqík QSlys ds fy;s ugha yk;k tkrkA

vQlksl dh ckr gS fd ns”k ds e/;&if”peh vkSj mÙkj&if”peh fgLls esa xqIr dky ls vfLrRo esa cuh gqbZ [kkiksa ds Lof.kZe bfrgkl dks ,sls ehfM;kdehZ orZeku esa nkxnkj cuk jgs gSa ftUgsa u rks [kki dh le> gS vkSj u gh tkV tkfr ds xkSjoe;h bfrgkl] laLd`fr vkSj ;ksxnku dhA ;g dsoy ,d [kki dh izfr’Bk ;k tkVksa ds dqNsd xkao dk elyk ugha gS cfYd ns”k&fons”k esa clh leLr tkV tkfr ds Hkfo’; vkSj vfLrRo dk loky gS ftl ij tkV tkfr ds cqf)thfo;ksa dks u dsoy xaHkhjrk ls fopkj djuk gksxk cfYd nqHkkZX;iw.kZ vkSj fuanuh; ?kVukvksa dh iqujkorhZ dks jksdus ds fy;s l”kDr ,oa dkjxj lkekftd] dkuwuh vkSj oSKkfud mik; Hkh lq>kus gksaxsA ,slk ugha gS fd tkV tkfr esa mPp f”k{kk izkIr] foosdh vkSj mPp Lrjh; cqf)thoh fQygky u gksa ysfdu fiNys nks n”kdksa esa gqbZ ?kVukvksa ds le; mudh pqIih vkSj fuf’Ø;rk ds ifj.kke Lo:i u dsoy [kkiksa ds v)Z&f”kf{kr izfrfuf/k vFkok pkS/kjh lekt esa mRiUu fookg laca/kh fooknksa dh lquokbZ ds le; v{ke fl) gq, gSa cfYd tkx:drk ds vHkko esa izHkkfor ifjokj dkuwu vkSj [kki esa ckr mBkus dh ctk; igys gh vius rkRdkfyd QSlys ysdj fgald vFkok xSj&dkuwuh dkjZokbZ dj pqds gksrs gSaA [kkiksa ds pkS/kfj;ksa ds ikl rks dksbZ fookn rc igaqprk gS tc mUgsa vius cpko dh fpark lrkus yxrh gS vFkok tc mUgsa viuh xSj&dkuwuh vkSj fgald dkjZokbZ ds fy;s [kki ds leFkZu dh t:jr iM+rh gSA

fiNys chl lky esa gqbZ ?kVukvksa dk ;fn dsl&ckbZ&dsl vFkkZr izR;sd elys ds ckjs esa ckjhdh ls fopkj fd;k tk;s rks T;knkrj elyksa dks cSB dj] “kkafriwoZd fuiVk;k tk ldrk FkkA bu ekeyksa esa [kki ds pkS/kfj;ksa dh lgk;rk ds fy;s lekt foKkuh] vkuqoaf”kdhfon] bfrgklfon] oSKkfud laLFkk,a vkSj dkuwufon lqyHk gks ldrs FksA ysfdu ;g rks rc dh ckr gS tcfd yM+dk vkSj yM+dh ds izHkkfor ifjokjksa ds O;fDr cnyk ysus vFkok fdlh xSj&dkuwuh rkRdkfyd dkjZokbZ dks vatke u nsa vkSj ;g fu.kZ; ysa fd pkgs dqN Hkh gks vc leLr dkjZokbZ dh ftEesokjh [kki ds pkS/kfj;ksa dh gh gSA ,slk blfy;s fd bu ekeyksa esa ns”k dh vnkyrsa &uhps ls Åij rd dh lHkh] dksbZ [kkl n[kyvankth djuk ilan ugha djrhA ns”k esa cgqr ls ,sls ekeys jgs gSa ftuesa loksZPp U;k;ky; rd us ;g dg fn;k gS fd fganw fookg vf/kfu;e LFkkuh; jhfr&fjoktksa ls Åij ugha gSA ckEcs gkbZ dksVZ lu 1945 }kjk fuiVk;s x;s dsoy ,d gh  ds QSlys ds vk/kkj ij] ftlesa xSj&tkV tkfr ds yksx izHkkfor Fks] lxks= fookg dks ekU; crk;s tkus dh otg ls tkVksa esa lxks= fookg dks dkuwuu loZekU; cukus dh ckr dguk vFkok blh eqdíesa ds m)j.k ds vk/kkj ij tkV tkfr esa lkekftd ifjikfV;ksa dk mYya?ku djds yM+dk&yM+dh dh vkilh ethZ ls vHkh rd gks pqds oSokfgd laca/kksa dks fooknkLin dh Js.kh esa u j[ks tkus dh ckr yksd&ekU;rkvksa ds fo#) gh ugha cfYd [krjukd Hkh gSA 
  
fganqvksa esa o.kZ O;oLFkk ds vuqlkj ftlesa Øfed lkekftd fodkl ls ckn esa tkfr;ka cu xbZa] fookg laca/kksa dh LFkkiuk vkSj fookg ;ksX; ;qod ,oa ;qofr;ksa ds ijLij ifr&ifRu tSls laca/kksa okys bu elyksa ds ckjs esa eq[; vkifÙk;kas dk vk/kkj D;k gS vkSj fdl izdkj dh gSa%&


           vkifÙk;ksa dk vk/kkj

§  oSfnd dky ds ckn czkã.k dky dh ijaijkvksa ds vuqlkj ftudh LFkkiuk laHkor% xqIrdkyhu Hkkjr ls vkjaHk gqbZ] ;g LFkkfir gqvk fd firk dh vksj ls pkj vkSj ekrk dh vksj ls rhu ihf<+;ksa dk fookg lacaa/k ds fy;s R;kx djuk gksxkA bldk vFkZ ;g gqvk fd ftl yM+ds ds fy;s dU;k oj r; djuk gS ml yM+ds ds ij&firkeg }kjk LFkkfir dqy vkSj dU;k oj dh vksj ls mlds firkeg }kjk LFkkfir dqy ds chp pkj vkSj rhu ihf<+;ka ihNs rd fookg laca/kksa dh otZuk gksxhA

§  vUrtkZrh; fookg dk fu’ks/k gksxk ysfdu mPp o.kZ dk iq#’k lekt dh lgefr ls fuEu o.kZ vFkok tkfr dh dU;k ls fookg dj ldrk gS ysfdu fuEu o.kZ dh dU;k mPp o.kZ ds iq#’k ls fookg ugha dj ldrhA

§  mijksDr nksuksa gh ekeyksa esa ,d gh xkao esa vFkok xqgkaM ¼iM+kslh xkao½ ;k HkkbZpkjk ds xkaoksa esa] pkgs os vU; xks=&dqy ds gh D;ksa u gksa] fookg laca/kksa dk fu’ks/k gksxkA

§  xks= [kki ds xkao esa ;fn vU; xks= ds O;fDr jgrs gSa rks os [kki ds xks= esa vius yM+ds dk fj”rk mu yM+dh okyksa ls ugha dj ldrs ftudk xks= ogh gS tks fd [kki dk xks= gS pkgs yM+dh okys fdlh nwj ds xkao ds gh jgus okys D;ksa u gksaA mnkgj.k ds fy;s <jk.kk xkao esa johUnz vkSj f”kYik ds ekeys esa ;gh gqvkA johUnz dk xks= xgykor gS vkSj f”kYik dk dkfn;kuA bl ekeys esa C;kg dj ykbZ xbZ yM+dh leLr xks= [kki ds fy;s viuh csVh ds leku gh gqbZA blfy;s [kki ds yksxksa dk ;g eatwj ugha muds xks= dh csVh muds vius chp fdlh vkSj dh o/kw cu dj jgsA muds lkeus euksoSKkfud vkSj lkekftd leL;k ;g Fkh os f”kYik dks viuh csVh ekusa ;k o/kwA D;ksafd f”kYik igys dkfn;kuksa dh csVh gS blfy;s mls o/kw ekuus ds fy;s dksbZ Hkh rS;kj ughaA fookn dh tM+ Hkh ;gh FkhA

xks=&[kki ds chp le&tkrh;] le&lkekftd vf/kdkj izkIr vkSj ,d gh tSls jhfr&fjoktksa dks ekuus okys vU; xks= ds yksxksa dk fuokl dSls gqvk] fdu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa mUgsa ,dy xks=&[kki ds xkaoksa esa clk;k x;k vkSj fookn ls iwoZ muds fj”rs&ukrs fdl izdkj r; gksrs jgs bu ckrksa ij fookn&iwoZ fdlh xks=&[kki iapk;r vFkok ehfM;k us fjiksfVZax ls igys mi;qDr ,oa lgh tkudkjh gkfly djuk vHkh rd t:jh ugha le>k gSA ,d ,sfrgkfld vkSj lkekftd izfØ;k ds rgr fdlh ,d xks= cgqyrk okys vFkok ,dy xks=&[kki ds xkao esa Hkw&HkkbZ ds rkSj ij clk;s tkus ds vykok fdUgha fo”ks’k ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ckgqcy dh o`f) djus vFkok xkao esa fdlh ifjokj }kjk foifÙk dky esa viuh cgu vFkok Hkkuts dks clk;s tkus ds dkj.k Hkh vU; xks= ds yksxksa dk LFkk;h fuokl gks tk;k djrk FkkA iqjkuh ifjikVh ds vuqlkj ikjaifjd :i ls Hkw&Lokfe gksus ds dkj.k tkV d`’kd ifjokj xqtj&clj ds fy;s mUgsa viuh tehu esa ls gh dqN tehu ns fn;k djrs FksA dqN xkaoksa esa ,slk Hkh ns[kus esa vk;k fd bl izdkj ckgj ls vk;s gq, vU; xks= ds ifjokj viuk xks= NksM+ dj xkao dk eq[; xks= gh viuk fy;k djrs FksA bu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa [kki ds xks= vkSj bdYys&nqdYys xks=ksa ds ifjokjksa }kjk vius cPpksa dk oSokfgd laca/k r; djus esa vusd izdkj dh lkekftd vkSj euksoSKkfud eqf”dysa is”k vkrh jgh gSa ftudk foxr esa dqN u dqN gy fudkyk tkrk jgk FkkA ysfdu tc vusd xkaoksa esa vYila[;d xks= ds yksxksa dh la[;k c<+ xbZ rks leL;k us fodjky :i /kkj.k dj fy;k ftldk izfrdkj fgalk ds :i esa ÅHkj dj lkeus vk;k gSA

fookg laca/kksa dks vkfn dky ls izpfyr ifjikfV;ksa ds vuqlkj r; u fd;s tkus ds ckjs esa yksxksa ds chp tks Mj gS mldk fujkdj.k djuk xks=&[kki vkSj loZ&[kki ds cl dh ckr Hkh vc ugha jgh gSA foxr esa gqbZ vusd cSBdksa vkSj lEesyuksa ls ;g lkfcr gks pqdk gS fd [kki ds pkS/kjh lkekftd vkSj oSKkfud elyksa ij ckr gh ugha djrsA os rks dsoy ^bTtr* dh ckr djrs gSa] ckr dks iwjh rjg le>s fcuk fdlh ifjokj dks nks’kh djkj nsdj xkao&fudkyk vkSj gqDdk&ikuh can djus dk vkns”k nsrs gSaA bl ekeys esa jktuSfrd nyksa dh fnypLih] dkuwu vkSj O;oLFkk cjdkjkj j[kus dh ljdkjh ftEesokjh] fo/kkf;dkvksa esa fn;s x;s oDrO;] dkuwu vkSj fof/k ea=ky; dh n{krk vkSj U;k;ky;ksa ,oa U;k;k/kh”kksa dh okftc fparkvksa vkSj dkjZokb;ksa vkfn ls dqN [kkl QdZ ugha iM+us okykA ;gka rd fd fgUnw fookg vf/kfu;e esa izLrkfor la”kks/ku Hkh blfy;s T;knk dkjxj ugha gksxk fd ;g tkV lekt esa izpfyr fookg laca/kh ifjikfV;ksa dks fof/kor ntZ gh djsxk u fd vijkf/k;ksa dk cpko djsxkA blfy;s nks ckrksa ij xaHkhjrk ls gh ugha cfYd ekSfyd :i ls fopkj djuk t:jh gSA igyh rks ;g fd fookg laca/kksa ds fu/kkZj.k ds ckjs esa tkV dkSe dh tks vkfn vFkok iqjkru ekU;rk,a gSa mudk iqufuZjh{k.k djuk vkSj nwljk ;g fd bu ekU;rkvksa ds oSKkfud vk/kkj dh ryk”k djukA bl izfØ;k dk vkjaHk djus ls iwoZ ;g Hkh /;ku j[kk tkuk pkfg;s fd tkV lekt dh ftu ifjikfV;ksa vkSj ijaijkvksa dks folftZr djus dh ckr bu fnuksa py jgh gS vkSj ftudk ewy izd`fr vkSj d`f’kdk;Z tfur gS muls tqM+s gq, /kkfeZd] lkekftd] vkfFkZd vkSj oSKkfud rRo ,oa euq’;ksa ds ijLij lg&laca/k gekjh lH;rk vkSj xkSjo xzaFkksa esa fufgr ewY; gh buds ekSfyd vk/kkj LraHk jgs gSaA uohurk vFkok ekMfuZT+e ds uke ij bu ekU;rkvksa ,oa ifjikfV;ksa ij vk?kkr djus vFkok budk fo[kaMu djus dk rkRi;Z Hkkjrh;rk vkSj Hkkjrh; laLd`fr dk gh vieku gksxkA gfj;k.kk ds xzkE;kapyksa esa dsoy ^ew[kZ*] ^xaokj*] vf”kf{kr vkSj d`f’k rFkk i”kqikyu esa lnSo fyIr jgus okys vlH; tkV gh ugha jgrs cfYd bUgksaus cfy’B] ckSf)d pkrq;Z ls ljkcksj] rduhdh :i ls dq”ky vkSj ckSf)d :i ls iz[kj ,oa l{ke larkuksa dks Hkh tUe fn;k gS ftUgksaus ns”k ds fo”ofo|ky;ksa ;ksX;re f”k{kdksa] lsuk esa lsukifr tSls lkgfld dk;ksaZ] dfBu] nqxZe vkSj tkuysok deZ dks lg’kZ Lohdkj djus] foKku dh lHkh “kk[kkvksa esa ekSfyd “kks/k ls fo”o esa dhfrZeku LFkkfir djus] xazFkksa ,oa vuU; lkfgR; dh jpuk djus] lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh esa ekSfyd ;ksxnku nsus] yfyr dykvksa vkSj lkfgR; tSls vusd {ks=ksa esa ekSfyd l`tu ds vykok vPNk bUlku gksus dk Hkh lcwr fn;k gSA ,sls izcq) yksx ftu lkekftd ijaijkvksa dks ekurs gksa mUgsa ?k`f.kr le> dj folftZr djus yk;d dSls ekuk tk ldrk gS \

ekU;rkvksa ds oSKkfud vk/kkj dh ryk”k ;fn dh tk;s rks mudk iqufuZjh{k.k djus dh t:jr Lo;aeso gh lekIr gks tk;sxhA vkb;s ns[ksa dh oSKkfud v/;;u D;k dgrs gSa vkSj ;g Hkh fd tSo&oSKkfud] u`&”kkL=h; vkSj lkekftd&vkfFkZd v/;;uksa ds ckjs esa vke tkV&tu Hkh oSKkfud :i ls tkx:d gS ;k ughaA ;g ns[kuk Hkh t:jh gS fd bu v/;;uksa dh lexzrk] leFkZrk vkSj lR;rk fdl Lrj rd dh gSA ekuo ds fookg laca/kksa ds lkekftd vk/kkj ds Øfed fodkl dh tM+ esa tks Hkh ekU;rk,a jgh gSa mudk fofr/kor fu/kkZj.k Hkkjr ds izkphu euhf’k;ksa us ;FkkFkZ dks le>us ds ckn Hkfo’; esa laHko gks ldus okys ifj.kkeksa dh dYiuk djds gh fd;k Fkk vU;Fkk ,slk D;ksa gqvk fd mudh ckr dks dsoy dqN yksxksa us ugha cfYd lHkh us ekukA vke ekU;rk ds fo#) eqlyeku HkkbZ] pkgs os gekjs eqYd esa jgrs gksa ;k nqfu;k ds vU; ns”kksa esa] os Hkh vius dqy esa ,dne fudV laca/kh ls fookg ugha djrs os mUgsa oSKkfud igyqvksa dk Kku gks ;k u gks vFkok os tkV lekt esa fookg laca/kksa ds fu/kkZj.k ds ckjs esa izpfyr ifjikfV;ksa dh tkudkjh j[krs gksa ;k ughaA u dsoy fgUnw tkVksa vfirq Hkkjr ds /kqj nf{k.kh izns”kksa vkSj e/;&if”pe Hkkjr ds vapyksa rd esa bu ckrksa dk lHkh dks izkphu dky ls gh Kku jgk gS fd vius lcls fudVorhZ laca/kh ls fookg dh otZuk djuh pkfg;sA tSo&oSKkfudksa us tc ls ^tsusfVDl* ds {ks= esa vUrjfo|korhZ lekt”kkL=h; v/;;uksa dh “kq#vkr dh rc ls vusd ,sls fnypLi rF; lkeus vk;s gSa ftuls fookg laca/kksa dh iqjkuh ekU;rkvksa dh oSKkfud tkap Hkh laHko gqbZ gSA vc rd Hkkjr esa gh ,sls lSadM+ksa egRoiw.kZ v/;;u gks pqds gSa ftuds fy;s u dsoy vaxsztksa ds le; dh tux.kuk ds vkadM+s ¼[kklrkSj ls lu 1881 ls ysdj 1931 rd ds½ cfYd lu 1992&93 ds nkSjku Hkkjr esa fd;s us”kuy Qsfeyh gSYFk losZ ds vkadM+ksa dk Hkh O;kid bLrseky gqvkA bu v/;;uksa ds vusd mís”;ksa esa ,d eq[; rkSj ij ;g tkuuk Hkh r; fd;k x;k Fkk fd tkfr;ksa esa fookg laca/k fdl izdkj LFkkfir gksrs gSaA nwljk ;g fd ftu Hkh ekU;rkvksa vFkok ifjikfV;ksa ;k ijaijkvksa ds vuqlkj bls r; fd; tkrk gks blds ifj.kke Lo:i naifr;ksa dh larkuksa esa vkuqoaf”kd vkSj tUetkr ds vykok xSj&tUetkr chekfj;ksa dh fLFkfr D;k jghA fudVre lacaf/k;ksa dks NksM+dj D;k vU; nwjLFk&fudV lacaf/k;ksa esa fookg djus ls larku vkuqoaf”kd :i ls detksj gqbZ vFkok LoLFk jgh] bldh Hkh tkap dh xbZA nwljh vksj ftu tkfr;ksa esa fookg laca/kksa ds fy;s nwjLFk&fudV lacaf/k;ksa dk Hkh fu’ks/k gksrk gS] tSls fd tkVksa esa] rks D;k budh larku nwjLFk&fudV lacaf/k;ksa esa fookg ds mijkUr iSnk gksus okyh larkuksa ls fdlh ek;us esa vf/kd rkdroj vkSj jksx fujks/kd {kerk vFkok xq.kksa okyh gksrh gSA bl ekeys esa fuEufyf[kr v/;;uksa dk gokyk nsuk mi;qDr gksxk tks bl ckcr izdk”k Mkyus esa l{ke gSa%&

1-    Parental Consanguinity and Offspring Mortality: The Search for Possible Linkage in Indian Context, Sushanta K. Banerjee (Research Manager, Taylor Nelson Sofres MODE, Kotla Mubarakpur, Delhi-03) and T.K.Roy (Director, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Mumbai-400008), Asia pacific Population Journal, March 2002
2-    An Epidemiological Study of Congenital Malformations in Rural Children, Virendra Kumar (Department of Pediatrics and Community Medicine, PGIMES, Chandigarh), Amar Jeet Singh and R.K.Marwaha, Indian Pediatrics, Vol.31, August 1994
3-    Consanguinity and its Effects on Fertility and Child Survival Among Muslims of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir by M.K.Bhasin and Shampa Nag
4-    Community perceptions of reasons for preference for consanguineous marriages in Pakistan, R.Hussain, University of Wollongong, Journal of History of Social Science, 31, 449-461, 1999.
5-    Genetics of Castes and Tribes in India: Indian Population Milieu, M.K.Bhasin, International Journal Human Genetics, 6(3): 233-274 (2006), Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, India
6-    Endogamy, consanguinity and community genetics, A.H.Bittles, Centre for Human Genetics, Edith Cowan University, 100, Joondalup Drive, Perth, WA 6027, Australia. Journal of Genetics, Vol.81, No.3, December 2002
7-    Inbreeding and post-natal mortality in South India: effects on the gene pool, A.H.Bittles (Department of Anatomy and Human Biology, King’s College, University of London, London, UK), A. Radha Rama Devi, H.S.Savithri, Rajeshwari Sridhar and N. Appaji Rao (Indian Council of Medical Research Centre for Biomedical Research, Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore), Journal of Genetics, Vol. 64, Nos. 2 & 3, December 1985
8-    The impact of consanguinity on the Indian Population, A.H.Bittles, Centre for Human Genetics, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia. Indian Journal of Human Genetics, July-December 2002, Volume 8 Issue 2
9-    Inbreeding effects on fertility and sterility in southern India, P.S.S.Rao and S.G.Inbaraj, Department of Biostatistics, Christian Medical College, Vellore NA, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Medical Genetics, 1979, 16, 24-31

mijksDr oSKkfud v/;;uksa ds vUr esa lanHkZ ds rkSj ij lSadM+ksa dh la[;k esa vU; v/;;uksa dks Hkh lwphc) fd;k x;k gS rkfd bl fo’k; ds ckjs esa vc rd tqVkbZ xbZ tkudkjh iwjs rkSj ij crk;h tk ldsA ;s lanHkZ bu v/;;uksa }kjk fudkys x;s urhtksa rd igqapus esa lgk;d jgs gSaA ,slk ugha gS fd dsoy tkVksa dks gh viuh tkfr dks vkuqoaf”kd :i ls etcwr cuk;s tkus vkSj “kq) ¼pure stock½ j[kus dh fpark jgh gksA nqfu;k dh lHkh tkfr;ksa vkSj fof”k’V lewgksa esa ,slh lksp ds rgr ,d izfØ;k pyrh jgh gSA tkV lekt viuh tkfr esa rks fookg laca/kksa dks izkFkfedrk nsrs gSa ysfdu vius dchys vFkok xks= esa ughaA ,slk djus ls Hkh D;k tkV viuh tkfr ds vkuqoaf”kd lewg vFkok thu iwy dks iwjh rjg “kq) j[kus esa dke;kc gq, gSa ftlls fd vkSykn esa vkuqoaf”kd chekjh ds fdlh rjg ls dksbZ y{k.k u cpsaA

oSKkfud v/;;uksa ls lkeus vk;s rF; ;g crkrs gSa fd fudV lacaf/k;ksa ¼fudVre ugha½ esa fookg djus vFkok nwjLFk laca/kh ls Hkh fj”rk u djus okys lewgksa esa vkuqoaf”kd chekfj;ksa ls cpus ds volj yxHkx ,d tSls gh gksrs gSaA ysfdu bl ckr dk tokc nsuk gksxk fd ,sls fookg gksus dh fLFkfr esa vkuqoaf”kdh xq.kksa vFkok fod`fr;ksa dh okgd thUl dk nh?kZdkyhu O;ogkj D;k gksxkA ;g ckr eqlyekuksa vkSj nf{k.k Hkkjr esa gq, vusd v/;;uksa ls Kkr gksrh gS ftuls nks ckrksa dk irk pyrk gSA ¼;g /;ku nsus okyh ckr gS fd Hkkjr ds eqlyekuksa ds iwoZt dkSu Fks \ Hkkjr esa fgUnqvksa dh ,d cM+h vkcknh ;k rks foxr esa /keZ ifjorZu ls eqlyeku cuh vFkok bLyke dks ekuus okyh fons”kh uLyksa ds iq#’kksa vkSj Hkkjrh; fL=;ksa ls os iSnk gq,A bl fLFkfr esa eqlyekuksa esa fo”kq) thUl dk cuk jguk laHko ugha½ A pkgs dqN gks] eqlyeku yksx Hkh fudVre laca/kksa esa dnkfi fookg ugha djrs vkSj nwljk ;g fd nwjLFk&fudV laca/kksa esa gq, fookg ls iSnk lHkh larkusa fod`r thUl dks vkxs vkSykn esa ugha ys tkrhA D;ksa ugha ys tkrh bl ckjs esa vHkh v/;;u fd;s tkus dh t:jr gSA ;g tkuuk Hkh t:jh gS lqlqIr fod`r thUl tkx`r gksdj lHkh larkuksa esa chekfj;ka iSnk D;ksa ugha djrhaA vkuqoaf”kdh oSKkfudksa dk “kkL=h; Kku ;g dgrk gS fd vusd fLFkfr;ksa esa vusd ckj thu Lrj dk ckjhd O;ogkj okrkoj.kh izHkkoksa ds pyrs dqan gks ldrk gS ;k ean Hkh iM+ ldrk gS vFkok fcYdqy gh lekIr gks ldrk gSA fudV lacaf/k;ksa ds chp gq, fookg laca/kksa esa vkuqoaf”kdh va”k ¼traitlarkuksa esa pys tkrs gSa ftlls uLy Øe”k% detksj gksrh gSA tSlk fd vkerkSj ij eku fy;k x;k gS fd eqlyeku vkSj nf{k.k Hkkjr ds yksx vius ekek vFkok cqvk dh yM+dh vkSj yM+ds dh ijLij “kknh djrs jgs gSa vkSj muesa vkuqoaf”kdh jksx vFkok fod`fr;ka izdV gksrh jgh gSa rks mudh cM+h vkcknh dHkh dh fod`fr;ksa dh ekjh jksx xzLr gksdj vc rd lekIr gks pqdh gksrhA ijarq O;ogkj esa ,sfrgkfld rkSj ij ,slk ugha gqvkA mUgsa Kku Fkk] blfy;s os ,dne fudVorhZ lacaf/k;ksa ls fookg laca/kksa dk fu’ks/k djrs jgsA vHkh rd oSKkfudksa us tks tkudkjh tqVk;h gS mlls irk pyrk gS fd Mh-,u-,- ds Qhrs ij [kkl Øe esa v.kqvksa ds tks tksMs+ vkil esa xaqFks jgrs gSa os ,yhYl vkSj lSVsykbV Mh-,u-,- tSls lewg cuk dj jgrs gSaA ;s lewg ,d vkSj Øe esa Mh-,u-,- ds Qhrs ij ckjackjrk ls ¼repeat frequency½ izdV gksrs jgrs gSaA bUgha esa fdlh Øksekstkse vFkok xq.klw= esa dgha fNis gq, ,sls lewg Hkh gksrs gSa ftuesa fod`fr iSnk djus okyh thUl lksbZ gqbZ voLFkk esa ekStwn gksrh gSA bUgsa fjlSflo thUl dgk tkrk gSA chekjh iSnk djus ds fy;s ;s tc rd tkxzg ugha gksrh vFkok Lo;a dks ,DLizsl ugha djrh tc rd dh dksbZ vkarfjd vfkok ckº; ?kVd ;k fVªxj viuk dke u djsA

vQlksl rks ;g gS fd tkVksa esa mDr izdkj ls tsusfVDl ds v/;;u dHkh ugha gq,A fQj Hkh ftyk vackyk esa tks fd gfj;k.kk dk gh fgLlk gS ih-th-vkbZ- paMhx<+ ds oSKkfudksa us tks v/;;u fd;k mlls irk pyk fd nwjLFk laca/kh ls Hkh ijs ds fookg laca/k gksus ij larkuksa esa tUe ds le; ls gh ckyd esa dqN izdkj ds “kkjhfjd fodkj ns[ks x;s tks laHkor% xHkkZoLFkk esa eka }kjk xyr nok vFkok xyr rjhds ls vFkok xyr le; ij yh tkus okyh nok ds dkj.k xHkZ esa Hkzw.k vFkok vR;ar NksVs ckyd ds fodkl ds fy;s ?kkrd gq,A

nwljh vksj ;fn ge ;g eku dj pysa fd fookg laca/kksa dh LFkkiuk ds fy;s ijaijk ds rkSj ij nksuksa vksj ls lkr ihf<+;ksa esa fj”rk dk;e ugha gqvk gS rks blds ifj.kkeLo:i fdlh ,d tkV xks= ds yksxksa dk thu&iwy vFkkZr vkuqoaf”kdh HkaMkj vU; tkV xks= ds yksxksa ds thu&iwy ls vyx vkSj loZFkk jksxghu gksxk rks ;g Hkkjh Hkze gSA tkVksa esa dsoy dqN xks=ksa dks ysdj gh fookg dh otZuk gS ysfdu veweu dkSe esa rks “kknh gksrh gh gSA tkfgj gS tkV ltkrh; ysfdu vU; xks= esa fookg laca/k dk;e djrs gSaA rc D;k vUrjkZtkrh; fookg dks c<+kok nsuk pkfg;s D;ksafd ,d le; ,slk vk;sxk tc tkVksa esa thu&iwy T;knkrj gkseksthfu;l gks tk;sxk vFkkZr fof”k’Vrk fn[kkus okyh thUl dh la[;k ?kV tk;sxhA rc tkV lekt esa fookg laca/k LFkkfir djus okyh ifjikfV;kas vkSj ekU;rkvksa dk d;k gJ gksxk ;g dksbZ ugha tkurkA D;k os vUrjtkrh; fookg djus dks ck?; gksaxs D;ksafd mudh tkfr dh vkuqoaf”kd fofo/krk ij laHkor% vfLrRo dk ladV vku [kM+k gksxk\ blds fy;s tkVksa dks vkt ugha rks 300 vFkok 500 lky ckn ,slk djus ds fy;s rS;kj jguk gksxkA ijarq ;g dsoy gkbiksFkhfll vFkkZr dkfYifud fLFkfr gh ugha cfYd ,slk lR; gS ftls tsusfVd LVWMht+ dk vk/kkj feyk gSA vxj rS;kj ugha gksaxs rks D;k mUgsa cgqr nwj ds tkVksa ls fj”rs tksM+us gkasxs \ mu tkV oa”k/kkjksa dh LokLF; laca/kh D;k fLFkfr gS tks fons”kksa esa jgrs gSa vkSj ftUgksaus u dsoy vUrtkZrh; vfirq vU; uLy ds yksxksa ls fookg fd;s gS \ ysfdu D;k mDr dkjdksa ds pyrs oSKkfud vk/kkj ij tks ge lksp jgs gSa og laHko Hkh gSA vkSj ;fn gS] rks oSKkfud n`f’Vdks.k ds ukrs izd`fr dh viuh O;oLFkk vkSj “kfDr fdruh] fdl izdkj dh vkSj fdl :i esa gS \ fdlh Hkh iztkfr dh tula[;k esa vkuqoaf”kdh mRifjorZuksa ¼E;wVs”ku½ dh x.kuk djus ds ckjs esa lu 1908 esa fczfV”k xf.krK th- ,p- gkMhZ vkSj teZu fpfdRld MCY;w- okbuctZ us ,d lk/kkj.k xf.krh; ekWMy lq>kdj ;g dgk Fkk fd ^fdlh ,d fof”k’V tula[;k&lewg esa N% fo”ks’k dkjd ekStwn gksus ij izHkkoh vkSj xSj&izHkkoh ^,yhYl* esa ih<+h nj ih<+h dksbZ mRifjorZu ugha vkrkA* ijarq izd`fr esa ;s lHkh N% dkjd dHkh ,d lkFk ekStwn ugha gksrs ns[ks x;sA budh ,d lkFk ekStwnxh dh laHkkouk,a vR;ar {kh.k gh ugha vfirq vlaHko gSaA os 6 dkjd fuEufyf[kr gSa%

¼1½    tula[;k lewg cM+k gks]
¼2½    larkuksRifÙk gsrq feyu vFkkZr ^esfVax* csrjrhc vFkok ;n`PN;k ¼jsaMe½ gks]
¼3½    thUl esa dksbZ mRifjorZu u gks]
¼4½    lHkh ^thuksVkbi* larkuksRifÙk ds ;ksX; gksa rkfd izkd`frd p;u ¼uspqjy lsysD”ku½ u gks]
¼5½    fiNyh vkSj Hkkoh ihf<+;ka ,d nwljs ds lkFk u jgsa vFkkZr ^tsujs”kal Mw ukWV vksojySi*]
¼6½   tula[;k lewgksa ds chp vkilh esy&feyki u gks vFkkZr os ges”kk vius gh HkkSxkfyd               bykds rd lhfer jgsa vkSj fdlh Hkh dkj.k vkSj t:jr ls u rks ckgj tk;sa vkSj u gh                  ckgj ls vk;s fdlh O;fDr ls larkuksRifÙk gsrq feysa ;k mUgsa vius bykds esa izos”k nsaA

/;ku nsus ij irk pyrk gS fd izkd`frd :i ls mDr lHkh fLFkfr;ka dHkh ,d lkFk gkftj ugha gks ldrhA blfy;s ;g eku ysuk fd fudV lacaf/k;ksa ls fookg djus ds mijkar tkVksa dk thu&iwy ^fod`r* gks tk;sxk] laHko ugha gSA gka] lkekftd vkSj euksoSKkfud :i ls ;g ekU; ugha gksxk D;ksafd blls xaHkhj vjktdrk dh fLFkfr iSnk gks tk;sxh tSlk fd blds ladsr vHkh ls feyus yxs gSaA bls dkuwu vkSj O;oLFkk dh fLFkfr eku dj jkT; ,d pqukSrh ekus ;g Bhd ugha cfYd lkekftd fodklØe ds Qhrs ij bls ,d egRoiw.kZ ?kVukØe le> dj viuh izfrfØ;k,a r; djsA blfy;s tkVksa esa fookg dh tks ijaijk pyh vk jgh gS og ,dne lgh gS vkSj mls ekU;rk feyrs jgus dh t:jr Hkh gSA xSj ekU;rk izkIr fookg laca/kksa ds dkj.k tkuysok vijk/k tSls ekeyksa dk mHkjuk tkV lekt ds fy;s fuf”pr :i ls mruk gh ?kkrd gS ftruk fd jkT; ds fy;s ;g t:jh gS fd dkuwu] O;oLFkk ,oa “kkafr cuk;s j[kh tk;sA eksVs rkSj ij ;gh ckr jktuSfrd nyksa ds cM+s usrkvksa dgh gSA

gfj;k.kk ,d ,slk izns”k gS tks mÙkj Hkkjr esa HkkSxksfyd :i ls ,slh txg ij fLFkr gS tgka fldanj ds geys ds le; ls gh fons”kh tkfr;ksa vFkok uLyksa dk vkxeu gksrk jgk gS vkSj ogka ds iq#’kksa ls ;gka dh fL=;ksa ls larkusa gksrh jgh gSaA lfn;ksa ds varjky ls ;g ?kkyesy bruk l?ku gks pqdk gS dkSu lh uLy fo”kq) cph gksxh] dguk eqf”dy gSA fQj Hkh tkVksa ds lkeus vius vfLrRo dks cpkus ds fy;s toku cPpksa dh gR;k dj nsuk ;k viuh ^lk[k* ;k bTtr cpkus ds uke ij t?kU; vijk/k djuk vkSj [kki dh rkdr dh vkM+ esa mldh vuns[kh dj nsuk Bhd ugha gksxkA blls lekt esa vjktdrk dk lapkj gksrk gS vkSj tkVksa esa izcq) oxZ tks fd T;knkrj vc i<+&fy[k dj “kgjksa esaa jgus yxk gS viuksa ls gh dV tk;sxk vkSj fonzksgh gks tk;sxkA [kki rks ,d izkphu laxBu dk fopkj ek= gS ftlus dkSe vkSj ns”k dh vusd ckj lsok dh gSA blfy;s vkilh fooknksa vkSj O;fDrxr jaft”k dh otg ls [kki tSls ifo= laxBu dks cnuke ugha fd;k tkuk pkfg;sA u gh bldh t:jr gSA [kki ds pkS/kfj;ksa dks Hkh fopkj djuk pkfg;s fd os u;s tekus ds fglkc ls lgu”khy vkSj mnkj n`f’Vdks.k viuk;sa vkSj viuh Hkwfedk dks cnyrs gq, ,sls u;s dke gkFk esa ysa ftlls xzke lekt ns”k dh eq[; /kkjk dk nq”eu cuus dh ctk; ewyk/kkj cuk jgsA vU;Fkk vkfFkZd] lkekftd vkSj euksoSKkfud Lrj ij blds xaHkhj nq’ifj.kke >syus gksaxsA rjDdh ds jkLrs ls xkao foeq[k gks tk;saxs vkSj ;qok ih<+h vR;ar fonzksgh gks mBsxhA blfy;s t:jr gS tkVksa ds fy;s ,d ,sls ekxZn”kZd nLrkost ds fuekZ.k dh ftlesa mu lc ifjikfV;ksa dh lwph ds vykok ftls tkV dkSe izkphu dky ls viuh /kjksgj ekurh gS ,slh O;k[;k,a Hkh fufgr gksa tks oSKkfud :i ls budh iqf’V djsaA vQlksl rks ;gh gS fd lapkj vkSj lwpuk Økafr ds bl oSKkfud ;qx esa Hkh tkV dkSe vHkh rd viuk lkekftd lafo/kku ugha cuk ldhA lu 1908 esa okbucxZ vkSj gkMhZ }kjk izLrqr dh xbZ vo/kkj.kk dks lkS o’kZ ls T;knk dk le; O;rhr gks pqdk gSA bl nkSjku tSo oSKkfudksa us tsusfVDl esa “kks/k djds tkudkjh ds HkaMkj esa u dsoy vikj o`f) dh gS cfYd os brus l{ke Hkh gSa fd fdlh tkfr fo”ks’k dh tula{;k ds ckjs esa O;kogkfjd Hkfo’;okf.k;ka dj ldsaA ekuo thukse dk uD”kk cus gq, 10 o’kZ gksus okys gSaA Hkkjr ds oSKkfud viuh tula[;k vkSj tkfr;ksa ds thukse dk irk yxkus dh egRokdka{kh ifj;kstukvksa ij dbZ lky ls dke dj jgs gSaA buds dqN urhts vc izkIr gksus yxs gSaA gekjs ns”kk esa Hkkjrh; vk;qfoZKku vuqla/kku ifj’kn] oSKkfud ,oa vkS|ksfxd vuqla/kku ifj’kn] bafM;u baLVhV~;wV vkWQ lkbal] Hkkjr ljdkj ds tSo&izkS|ksfxdh ,oa foKku rFkk izkS|ksfxdh foHkkxksa ls tqM+h vusd iz;ksx”kkykvksa ds vykok vusd fo”ofo|ky;ksa esa thu tfur fod`fr;ksa vkSj chekfj;ksa ij “kks/k fd;k tk jgk gSA [;kfr izkIr oSKkfudksa vkSj tkudkjh ds fo”kky miyC/k HkaMkj ds gksrs gq, ;fn tkV vHkh fookg laca/kksa ds ckjs esa mxz #[k viukrs gSa vkSj mudh “kadkvksa dk lek/kku djus ds fy;s oSKkfud leqnk; vkxs ugha vkrk rks izcq) ,oa oSKkfud lekt dk dlwj gh T;knk gSA gfj;k.kk ds fo”ofo|ky;ksa ds foKku&ladqy bu ckrksa ij ppkZ djokus vkSj lkekftd vjkdtdrk dks nwj djus ds mik; <aw<us esa jkT; ljdkj dk lg;ksx D;ksa ugha djrs\ fo”ofo|ky;ksa dk ;g lkekftd mÙkjnkf;Ro curk gS D;ksafd izFke n`’V;k ;g ekeyk iqfyl cy vkSj U;k;ikfydkvksa dk gS gh ughaA